Nebraska State Bird Western Meadowlark (Sturnella neglecta) Adopted on March 22, 1929. Indigenous peoples lived in the region of present-day Nebraska for thousands of years before European colonization. Thunderstorms are common during both the spring and the summer. Related pages. Thus, the official year that the Illinois State became part of the Union was 1818. When Nebraska became a state in 1867, its legislature consisted of two houses: a House of Representatives and a Senate. In 1937, Nebraska became the only state in the Union to have a unicameral (one-house) legislature in which members are elected to it without party designation. Snowfall across the state is fairly even, with most of Nebraska receiving between 25 to 35 inches (0.64 to 0.89 m) of snow each year. Beezley, William H. "Homesteading in Nebraska, 1862–1872". Lincoln, city, capital and second largest city of Nebraska, U.S., and seat (1869) of Lancaster county, in the southeastern part of the state, about 60 miles (95 km) southwest of Omaha. Was part of Dakota Territory before statehood. The Nebraska Territory was created by the Kansas–Nebraska Act of 1854. All elected officials in the executive branch serve four-year terms. Bentley, Arthur F. "The Condition of the Western Farmer as Illustrated by the Economic History of a Nebraska Township". Master's level programs were accredited preliminarily in 1962 and fully in 1971. George Nicodemus was the first head coach, leading the Huskers to a 22–9 record and the second round of the AIAW Tournament in his first season. Nebraska's castle law states that any force used must be deemed necessary by the person protecting themselves. Nebraska is bounded by the state of South Dakota to the north, with the Missouri River making up about one-fourth of that boundary and the whole of Nebraska’s boundaries with the states of Iowa and Missouri to the east. 1840s - Pioneers travel through Nebraska on the Oregon Trail. Various prehistoric peoples inhabited Nebraska as early as 8000 bce. The number of committees was pared down from 61 to 18, and 581 bills were introduced in 1937 as opposed to twice as many the previous session. But the Senate felt there was still strong opposition in Colorado against statehood. "Frequently Asked Questions about Nebraska Sales and Use Tax". Only a short four years earlier, it had been a wilderness. General Nebraska State History. Some river towns also became important transfer points for freight and passengers going west, leading to greater commercial development. Located in the extreme southeastern corner of Nebraska, Rulo was first laid out in 1857 and incorporated in 1858. The Nebraska State Court of Appeals hears appeals from the district courts, juvenile courts, and workers' compensation courts, and is the final court of appeal. Nebraska Right to Work Laws at a Glance. The facility employs more than 1,200 people. So Colorado failed to obtain a two-thirds vote needed to override the veto. The battle of Massacre Canyon, on August 5, 1873, was the last major battle between the Pawnee and the Sioux.[23]. Iowa was admitted to the union as the 29th state on Dec. 28, 1846. The entire state experiences wide seasonal variations in both temperature and precipitation. Instead, Nebraska's Northern border now extends east along the forty-third degree of north latitude until it meets the Missouri River directly. [54] Food and ingredients that are generally for home preparation and consumption are not taxable. The massacre ended Spanish exploration of the area for the remainder of the 18th century. By the 1960s Minnesota thus became a successful precursor to Route 128 around Boston and Silicon Valley. Here’s what the Arbor Day founder said and did.. Morton tried to … Lincoln's Kawasaki Motors Manufacturing is the only Kawasaki plant in the world to produce the Jet Ski, all-terrain vehicle (ATV), and Mule product lines. With the advent of the worldwide Great Depression of the 1930s, the state’s economy deteriorated further, necessitating massive federal assistance. Omaha is home to Berkshire Hathaway, whose chief executive officer (CEO), Warren Buffett, was ranked in March 2009 by Forbes magazine as the second-richest person in the world. Bellevue, founded in 1823, was the first permanent settlement. [57] Per capita personal income in 2004 was $31,339, 25th in the nation. Nebraska has three representatives in the House of Representatives: Jeff Fortenberry (R) of the 1st district; Don Bacon (R) of the 2nd district; and Adrian Smith (R) of the 3rd district. In the 1920s, however, Nebraska’s agriculture was again impacted by a nationwide depression, which was in part responsible for the failure of about two-fifths of the state-chartered banks from 1921 through 1930. Grand Island is the headquarters of Hornady, a manufacturer of ammunition. If this be true, there is no sense or reason in having the same thing done twice, especially if it is to be done by two bodies of men elected in the same way and having the same jurisdiction. Hopes were further lifted when Omaha was selected as the site to host the Trans-Mississippi and International Exposition of 1898, an event that was meant to revive the country’s economy and alleviate the financial panic of the 1890s. Colleges and universities in Nebraska At one time, it boasted two saw mills and one of the largest flour mills in the state. Those early hunters were followed by tribes of Indians who raised crops of corn, other vegetables, and sun-flowers. +++++ Nebraska adhered to the tradition of a two-house legislature throughout its history as a U.S. territory and nearly three-quarters of a century after it became a state. Nebraska, nicknamed the "Cornhusker State," was admitted into the Union on March 1, 1867, becoming our Nation's 37th state. Nelson retired in 2013 and was replaced by conservative Republican Fischer. CLOUDS were looming ominously over the not so United States in January, 1861. Omaha has a long history of civil rights activism. With the adoption of the Kansas-Nebraska Act in 1854, which created the territories of Kansas and Nebraska and repealed the prohibition of slavery north of latitude 36°30’ that was established in the Missouri Compromise of 1820, the federal government extended political organization to the trans-Missouri region. George Norris. When did Ohio Become a State. Nebraska's right to work statute is encoded in its labor code as well as its constitution. Several factors contributed to attracting new residents. Iowa was admitted to the union as the 29th state on Dec. 28, 1846. Barnhart, John D. "Rainfall and the Populist Party in Nebraska". Nebraska's legislature is unique among all state legislatures in the nation because it has a single-house system. Three years later the United States acquired this vast area from France as part of the Louisiana Purchase. This led to Wisconsin officially becoming the 30th state of the United States on May 29, 1848. Nebraska is composed of two major land regions: the Dissected Till Plains and the Great Plains. Under a 1991 law, two of Nebraska's five votes are awarded to the winner of the statewide popular vote, while the other three go to the highest vote-getter in each of the state's three congressional districts. Luebke, Frederick C. "The German-American Alliance in Nebraska, 1910–1917". Nebraska has a progressive income tax. In 1912, African Americans founded the Omaha chapter of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People to work for improved conditions in the city and state. Statehood was rushed to help ensure three electoral votes for Abraham Lincoln 's reelection and add to the Republican congressional majorities. On May 30, 1854, the US Congress created the Kansas and the Nebraska territories, divided by the Parallel 40° North, under the Kansas–Nebraska Act. Built from Indiana limestone, the capitol's base is a cross within a square. In the 2004 presidential election, George W. Bush won the state's five electoral votes by a margin of 33 percentage points (making Nebraska's the fourth-strongest Republican vote among states) with 65.9% of the overall vote; only Thurston County, which is majority-Native American, voted for his Democratic challenger John Kerry. Its capital city is Lincoln. The historic tribes in the state included the Omaha, Missouria, Ponca, Pawnee, Otoe, and various branches of the Lakota (Sioux), some of which migrated from eastern areas into this region. The exposition attracted more than two million people to Omaha over a four-month period. As a Midwestern state, Iowa forms a bridge between the forests of the east and the President Andrew Johnson vetoed the Nebraska statehood bill of 1866, but Congress overrode his veto, and Nebraska became a state on March 1, 1867. It was the 34th state to join the Union. [20] The Nebraska Territory included parts of the current states of Colorado, North Dakota, South Dakota, Wyoming, and Montana. In 1937, Nebraska became the only state in the Union to have a unicameral (one-house) legislature in which members are elected to it without party designation. State government and powerful politicians such as Hubert Humphrey maintained a favorable climate. The post was established to discourage British encroachment and to protect America's western frontier. In 1976, Nebraska became the first state to throw out its marital rape exception law. The Great Plains occupy most of western Nebraska, with the region consisting of several smaller, diverse land regions, including the Sandhills, the Pine Ridge, the Rainwater Basin, the High Plains and the Wildcat Hills. Parsons Stanley B. Nebraska /nəˈbræskə/ (listen) is a state that lies both in the Great Plains and in the Midwestern United States. North Dakota Both North and South Dakota became states on November 2, 1889. 1862 - The Union Pacific Railroad is founded in Omaha. It was established as a territory by the Kansas-Nebraska act of 1864 and its settlement was begun in 1860. Under the Homestead Act, thousands of settlers migrated into Nebraska to claim free land granted by the federal government. By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. The Spade Ranch, in the Sandhills, is one of Nebraska's oldest and largest beef cattle operations. In recent years, Nebraska has become home to many refugee communities. Nebraska is one of two states (Maine is the other) that allow for a split in the state's allocation of electoral votes in presidential elections. Nebraska’s constitutional convention voted against statehood, while Colorado Territory’s voters did not approve the proposed state constitution. [21] The territorial capital of Nebraska was Omaha. After becoming a state the capital of Nebraska was moved to Lancaster, which was renamed to Lincoln at a later date as a tribute to Abraham Lincoln. Nebraska became the 37th State shortly after the Civil War in 1867. Nebraska has a state sales and use tax of 5.5%. It is a relatively large state (15th largest in the country) with a population of about 2.9 million people (34th largest). Originally the Nebraska Territory comprised 351,558 square miles (910,531 square km), but by 1863 the organization of the Colorado, Dakota, and Idaho (including the states of Montana and Wyoming) territories had reduced Nebraska almost to its present dimensions. When European exploration, trade, and settlement began, both Spain and France sought to control the region. Because so few trees grew on the prairies, many of the first farming settlers built their homes of sod, as had Native Americans such as the Omaha. The nationwide economic panic of 1857, however, forced many to experiment with agriculture, which soon thrived. THE STATE QUARTER: United States Mint Image. During the 1840s the Platte valley became another major migration route as thousands of settlers moved westward to Oregon, California, and Utah over the path opened by the fur trade. During the 1880s Omaha became an important industrial and meatpacking centre, and Lincoln became prominent as the state capital and as the seat of the University of Nebraska. The state was much smaller than the territory. The judicial system in Nebraska is unified, with the Nebraska Supreme Court having administrative authority over all the courts within the state. There is a duty to retreat when the person is … View this answer No, Nebraska did not become a slave state after the Kansas-Nebraska Act. Sterling Morton. The United States Census Bureau estimates that the population of Nebraska was 1,934,408 on July 1, 2019, a 5.92% increase since the 2010 United States Census. Nebraska became the 37th US State on March 1, 1867. The National Arbor Day Foundation is still headquartered in Nebraska City, with some offices in Lincoln. On May 30, 1854, the United States government made a law called the Kansas-Nebraska Act. Below is a list of all 50 states in the order they joined the Union.. Regional population declines have forced many rural schools to consolidate. In 2008, the state split its electoral votes for the first time: Republican John McCain won the popular vote in Nebraska as a whole and two of its three congressional districts; the second district, which includes the city of Omaha, went for Democrat Barack Obama. [29] Nebraska's highest-recorded temperature was 118 °F (48 °C) in Minden on July 24, 1936. [15][16][17], In 1762, during the Seven Years' War, France ceded the Louisiana territory to Spain. Later that year, Mackay's party built a trading post, dubbed Fort Carlos IV (Fort Charles), near present-day Homer.[15][18][19]. Below is a list of all 50 states in the order they joined the Union.. Nebraska is composed of two major land regions: the Dissected Till Plains and the Great Plains. The Platte River, formed by the confluence of the North Platte and the South Platte, runs through the state's central portion, the Niobrara River flows through the northern part, and the Republican River runs across the southern part. By signing up, you'll get thousands of step-by-step solutions to your homework questions. Nebraska shares this characteristic with five other Midwestern states: Kansas, Oklahoma, North Dakota and South Dakota, and Iowa. The Panhandle and adjacent areas bordering Colorado have a semi-arid climate (Köppen BSk). Only a short four years earlier, it had been a wilderness. Was J. Americans are citizens of both the federal republic and of the state in which they reside, due to the shared sovereignty between each state and the federal government. The Great Plains region, occupying most of western Nebraska, is characterized by treeless prairie. The Union Pacific Railroad, headquartered in Omaha, was incorporated on July 1, 1862, in the wake of the Pacific Railway Act of 1862. 1) a) 1 March 1867 , 2) b) 28 May 1852 , 3) c) 4 August 1798 , 4) d) 21 November 1792 The city is also home to Mutual of Omaha, InfoUSA, TD Ameritrade, West Corporation, Valmont Industries, Woodmen of the World, Kiewit Corporation, Union Pacific Railroad, and Gallup. The Senate overrode the Nebraska veto and Nebraska became the 37th state on March 1, 1867. Between 1804 and 1820, both statewide and state legislature systems were commonly used, with a small but steady number of states using district-based methods. As of the 2010 Census, there were 530 cities and villages in the state of Nebraska. This sweet town thrived and in the 1930s, a large toll bridge was built across the Missouri River; it became a free bridge in the '60s. The first Constitution of Nebraska in 1866 described Nebraska's boundaries as follows (Note that the description of the Northern border is no longer accurate, since the Keya Paha River and the Niobrara River no longer form the boundary of the state of Nebraska. Agricultural inventions such as barbed wire, wind mills, and the steel plow, combined with good weather, enabled settlers to use Nebraska as prime farming land. It was designed by Bertram G. Goodhue. The locating of the capital of Nebraska Territory in Omaha so enraged the people south of the Platte that they sought to be annexed by Kansas. In 1854, Kansas and Nebraska were organized as territories with popular sovereignty (popular vote) to decide the issue of slavery. Nebraska has two major climatic zones. The women’s movement of the 1970’s led to changes in the law. Ring in the new year with a Britannica Membership, Trans-Mississippi and International Exposition. From 1956 through 1965, the license plate carried the motto, “The Beef State,” but it was never an official state name by act of the legislature. By the end of February 1919, only three states remained as hold-outs to ratification: New Jersey, Connecticut and Rhode Island. Originally, the territory included portions of lands that became states of Wisconsin, eastern Minnesota, Illinois, and western Upper Peninsula of Michigan. In the 1860s, after the U.S. government forced many of the Native American tribes to cede their lands and settle on reservations, it opened large tracts of land to agricultural development by Europeans and Americans. On January 8, 1918, Mississippi became the first state to ratify the amendment and on January 16, 1919, Nebraska became the 36th state to do so, securing its passage with the required three-fourths of the states. [40][41][42], As of 2011, 31.0% of Nebraska's population younger than age 1 were minorities.[43]. Norris was also a major promoter of the idea of a unicameral legislature, which Nebraskan voters endorsed in 1934. By the end of February 1919, only three states remained as hold-outs to ratification: New Jersey, Connecticut and Rhode Island. During the 1870s to the 1880s, Nebraska experienced a large growth in population. Average annual precipitation decreases east to west from about 31.5 inches (800 mm) in the southeast corner of the state to about 13.8 inches (350 mm) in the Panhandle. As the United States expanded to the west, the Platte Valley trails of Nebraska became the major highways. The name of Kansas comes from the Native American Kansa tribe and the region has been inhabited by Native American people for thousands of years. The Bureau of Economic Analysis estimates of Nebraska's gross state product in 2010 was $89.8 billion. Kansas, situated on the American Great Plains, became the 34th state on January 29, 1861. Nebraska's Legislature is also the only state legislature in the United States that is officially nonpartisan. Kool-Aid was created in 1927 by Edwin Perkins in the city of Hastings, which celebrates the event the second weekend of every August with Kool-Aid Days,[61] and Kool-Aid is the official soft drink of Nebraska. Nebraska, nicknamed the "Cornhusker State," was admitted into the Union on March 1, 1867, becoming our Nation's 37th state. The standard deduction for a single taxpayer is $5,700; the personal exemption is $118.[53]. Nebraska became the 37th US State on 1 March 1867. The struggle between pro- and anti-slave forces in Sittig 6 writes that the early Nebraska legislative branch was based mostly on the Iowa legislative system since the Nebraska territorial leaders relied heavily on Iowa's constitution in order to draft their own. 1867 - Nebraska is admitted to the Union as the 37th state. In 1820 a nearby camp became a permanent army post called Fort Atkinson. The eastern half of the state has a humid continental climate (Köppen climate classification Dfa); a unique warmer subtype considered "warm-temperate" exists near the southern plains, which is analogous to that in Kansas and Oklahoma, which have a predominantly humid subtropical climate. The capital moved from Omaha to Lincoln when Nebraska was admitted into the Union in 1867. Kansas shares a border with Colorado, Oklahoma, Missouri and Nebraska. The table below shows the racial composition of Nebraska's population as of 2016. They have created community schools to preserve their cultures, as well as tribal colleges and universities. It was admitted to the union as the 37th state in 1867. President Andrew Johnson vetoed the Nebraska statehood bill of 1866, but Congress overrode his veto, and Nebraska became a state on March 1, 1867. At the end of the 1600s both France and Spain had claimed the area that would become Nebraska, but in 1763 Spain won title to the trans-Mississippi region, including Nebraska. Both Lincoln and Omaha emerged as major regional hubs, but, because these cities are located at the eastern end of the state, western Nebraskans often turned their attention toward Denver, Colo. Much of the economy of the early Nebraska settlements along the Missouri River was based on land speculation. Johanns retired in 2015 and was succeeded by another conservative, Sasse. The first wave of settlement gave the territory a sufficient population to apply for statehood. Ameritas Life Insurance Corp., Nelnet, Sandhills Publishing Company, Duncan Aviation, and Hudl are based in Lincoln. Coordinates: .mw-parser-output .geo-default,.mw-parser-output .geo-dms,.mw-parser-output .geo-dec{display:inline}.mw-parser-output .geo-nondefault,.mw-parser-output .geo-multi-punct{display:none}.mw-parser-output .longitude,.mw-parser-output .latitude{white-space:nowrap}41°32′16″N 99°47′42″W / 41.5378°N 99.7951°W / 41.5378; -99.7951 (State of Nebraska), This article is about the U.S. state. The Legislature meets in the third Nebraska State Capitol building, built between 1922 and 1932. Nevada became the 36th state on October 31, 1864, after telegraphing the Constitution of Nevada to the Congress days before the November 8 presidential election (the largest and costliest transmission ever by telegraph). Lincoln has what form of local government? Former President Gerald Ford was born in Nebraska, but moved away shortly after birth. Naugle, Ronald C., John J. Montag, and James C. Olson. Nebraska is currently home to seven member schools of the NCAA, eight of the NAIA, seven of the NJCAA, one of the NCCAA, and one independent school. Voters have tilted to the right in recent years, a trend evidenced when Hagel retired from the Senate in 2008 and was succeeded by conservative Republican Mike Johanns to the U.S. Senate, as well as with the 2006 re-election of Ben Nelson, who was considered the most conservative Democrat in the Senate until his retirement in 2013. The western half of the state has a primarily semi-arid climate (Köppen BSk). The senators are elected with no party affiliation next to their names on the ballot, and members of any party can be elected to the positions of speaker and committee chairs. Sidney is the national headquarters for Cabela's, a specialty retailer of outdoor goods now owned by Bass Pro Shops. [14], Indigenous peoples lived in the region of present-day Nebraska for thousands of years before European colonization. All population figures are 2017 Census Bureau estimates unless flagged by a reference number. In the late 19th century, many African Americans migrated from the South to Nebraska as part of the Great Migration, primarily to Omaha which offered working class jobs in meat packing, the railroads and other industries. More urbanized areas of the state have experienced substantial growth. 1869-Oglala Sioux leader Red Cloud and other Sioux sign the 1868 Treaty of Fort Laramie. In response, Spain dispatched two trading expeditions up the Missouri in 1794 and 1795; the second, under James Mackay, established the first European settlement in Nebraska near the mouth of the Platte. The Union Pacific began its transcontinental railroad at Omaha in 1865. The Kansas-Nebraska Act was an 1854 bill that allowed settlers of Kansas and Nebraska to decide whether slavery would be allowed within their state's borders. The Colorado vote, on the same day as the Nebraska vote, was 29 "yes" and 19 "no" and four "absent". Nebraska's name is the result of anglicization of the archaic Otoe words Ñí Brásge, pronounced [ɲĩbɾasꜜkɛ] (contemporary Otoe Ñí Bráhge), or the Omaha Ní Btháska, pronounced [nĩbɫᶞasꜜka], meaning "flat water", after the Platte River which flows through the state. The eastern two-thirds of the state has a humid continental climate (Köppen Dfa), although the southwest of this region may be classed as a humid subtropical climate (Cfa) using the −3 °C or 26.6 °F boundary. In 1963, it became Kearney State College and part of the Nebraska state college system. Seventeen years later, all 50 states had revoked their marital rape … Many of these first Nebraskan settlers built their homes out of sod because trees were sparse on the grassy land. It has a land area of 77,354 square miles making it the 16th largest state. On this day in 1876, Colorado became the 38th state to join the Union when President Ulysses Grant signed a proclamation of statehood. Kansas, situated on the American Great Plains, became the 34th state on January 29, 1861. World War II brought economic recovery and other changes. Platte sections in Nebraska were hostile to each other and bitter strife resulted. Wenger, Robert W. "The Anti-Saloon League in Nebraska Politics, 1898–1910". When residents in the territory voted on the issue, many fraudu… 27, No. "Nebraska State Agriculture Overview—2006", "Owner of Nail Jack Tools wants to share former Vise-Grip plant", "Community-Owned Energy: How Nebraska Became the Only State to Bring Everyone Power From a Public Grid", "An Act to aid in the construction of a railroad and telegraph line from the Missouri river to the Pacific ocean, and to secure to the government the use of the same for postal, military, and other purposes, "Profile Showing the Grades upon the Different Routes Surveyed for the Union Pacific Rail Road Between the Missouri River and the Valley of the Platte River", USGS real-time, geographic, and other scientific resources of Nebraska, Spanish involvement in the American Revolutionary War, Francisco Hernández de Córdoba (Yucatán conquistador), Francisco Hernández de Córdoba (founder of Nicaragua), Indigenous people during De Soto's travels,, States and territories established in 1867, Pages with non-numeric formatnum arguments, Articles with dead external links from February 2018, Articles with permanently dead external links, Wikipedia pending changes protected pages, Wikipedia indefinitely move-protected pages, Short description is different from Wikidata, Pages using infobox settlement with no coordinates, Pages using Sister project links with hidden wikidata, Pages using Sister project links with default search, Wikipedia articles with MusicBrainz area identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SUDOC identifiers, Wikipedia articles with WORLDCATID identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Grand Island, Hastings and Kearney comprise the ", The northeast corner of Nebraska is part of the. The easternmost portion of the state was scoured by Ice Age glaciers; the Dissected Till Plains were left after the glaciers retreated. The first unicameral session two years later ran 98 days, passed 214 bills and cost $103,445. Other elected officials in the executive branch are Lieutenant Governor Mike Foley, Attorney General Doug Peterson, Secretary of State Bob Evnen, State Treasurer John Murante, and State Auditor Charlie Janssen. 110 days, passed 192 bills and cost $ 202,593 up for this email, you are agreeing to,... Of its history, Nebraska has become home to many refugee communities a state on Dec.,! U.S. senators are Deb Fischer and Ben Sasse, both Spain and France sought to control the of! Entire state experiences wide seasonal variations in both temperature and precipitation treaty of Fort Laramie of Nebraska became the state! 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