Sugar is a substance filled with natural sweet ingredients that pack high concentration of calories and flavors that can greatly enrich our food and calm our emotions and mood swings. The purified syrup is then concentrated to supersaturation and repeatedly crystallized in a vacuum, to produce white refined sugar. It is a C4 plant, able to convert up to 1% of incident solar energy into biomass. A history of sugar – the food nobody needs, but everyone craves It seems as though no other substance occupies so much of the world’s land, for so little benefit to humanity, as sugar. [50] The theoretical possible yield for sugarcane is about 280 tonnes per hectare per year, and small experimental plots in Brazil have demonstrated yields of 236–280 tonnes of cane per hectare.[51][52]. 900 – 1000 CE. In 510 BC the Emporer Darius of Persia invaded India where he found “the reed which gives honey without bees”. [citation needed], Particulate matter, combustion products, and volatile organic compounds are the primary pollutants emitted during the sugarcane processing. By the 10th century, sources state that every village in Mesopotamia grew sugarcane. Sugar, or White Gold, as British colonists called it, was the engine of the slave trade that brought millions of Africans to the Americas beginning in the early 16th-century. In Brazil, it is moreover a major component of biofuel. Traditionally, sugarcane processing requires two stages. It is one of the plants with the highest bioconversion efficiency. Sugarcane is a major crop in many countries. Indians discovered how to crystallize sugar during the Gupta dynasty, around 350 AD although literary evidence from Indian treatises such as Arthashastrain the 4th-3rd century BC indicates that refined sugar was already being p… Cuban sugar derived from sugarcane was exported to the USSR, where it received price supports and was ensured a guaranteed market. Global production of sugarcane in 2018 was 1.91 billion tonnes, with Brazil producing 39% of the world total, India with 20%, and China and Thailand producing about 6% each (table). Words for sugarcane exist in the Proto-Austronesian languages in Taiwan, reconstructed as *təbuS or **CebuS, which became *tebuh in Proto-Malayo-Polynesian. Per hectare per year, the biomass produced corresponds to 0.27 TJ. Dried filtercake is used as an animal feed supplement, fertilizer, and source of sugarcane wax. Bagasse is usually burned to produce steam, which in turn creates electricity. Although some sugarcanes produce seeds, modern stem cutting has become the most common reproduction method. Originating in New Guinea around 6000 B.C., sugarcane found its way to the Americas around 1493. [5] Merchants began to trade in sugar, which was considered a luxurious and expensive spice, from India. The stems grow into cane stalk which, when mature, constitutes around 75% of the entire plant. [45][46] Refineries, often located nearer to consumers in North America, Europe, and Japan, then produce refined white sugar, which is 99% sucrose. Originally from New Guinea, sugar cane very soon migrated to Southwest Asia and aroused keen interest among the people who discovered it. --The Rumpus "A Jamaican fairy tale set in 1958, A Tall History of Sugar is a love story between an odd, intriguing child, Moshe, and his soul mate Arrienne, whom he meets on the first day of school. Its purpose is to wash away the sugar crystals' outer coating, which is less pure than the crystal interior. The profits from the sale of the slaves were then used to buy more sugar, which was shipped to Europe. The cane juice began in the largest kettle. [50] The average worldwide yield of sugarcane crops in 2018 was 73 tonnes per hectare, led by Peru with 121 tonnes per hectare. Sugar cane (Saccharum spp.) In countries with a more traditional type of agriculture with smaller fields and hand harvesting, like in the French island la Réunion, sugar cane is often harvested up to 10 years before replanting. It is also a common ingredient in animal feed, is used to produce ethanol and rum, and in the manufacturing of citric acid. Christopher Columbus first brought sugarcane to the Caribbean during his second voyage to the Americas; initially to the island of Hispaniola (modern day Haiti and the Dominican Republic). Bagasse, the residual dry fiber of the cane after cane juice has been extracted, is used for several purposes:[47]. In 2012, the Food and Agriculture Organization estimated it was cultivated on about 26 million hectares (64 million acres), in more than 90 countries. Ribbon cane is a subtropical type that was once widely grown in the southern United States, as far north as coastal North Carolina. The cane beetle (also known as cane grub) can substantially reduce crop yield by eating roots; it can be controlled with imidacloprid (Confidor) or chlorpyrifos (Lorsban). a tall grass, Saccharum officinarum, of tropical and warm regions, having a stout, jointed stalk, and constituting the chief source of sugar. A sugarcane crop is sensitive to climate, soil type, irrigation, fertilizers, insects, disease control, varieties, and the harvest period. [11][12], Saccharum officinarum was first domesticated in New Guinea and the islands east of the Wallace Line by Papuans, where it is the modern center of diversity. Austoft also developed a series of hydraulic high-lift infield transporters to work alongside their harvesters to allow even more rapid transfer of cane to, for example, the nearest railway siding. Sugar cane was brought to the Americas in the 15th century, arriving first in Brazil by way of Portuguese traders. [55], Sugarcane bagasse is a potentially abundant source of energy for large producers of sugarcane, such as Brazil, India and China. With a total world harvest of over one billion tonnes of sugar cane per year, the global energy potential from bagasse is over 100,000 GWh. The Persians and Greeks encountered the famous "reeds that produce honey without bees" in India between the 6th and 4th centuries BC. The 1991 dissolution of the Soviet state forced the closure of most of Cuba's sugar industry. Sugarcane or sugar cane refer to several species and hybrids of tall perennial grass in the genus Saccharum, tribe Andropogoneae, that are used for sugar production. It is first mixed with heavy syrup and then centrifuged in a process called "affination". growing sugar cane Sugar is thought to have originated from a perennial grass native to Southeast Asia or the South Pacific. Technologies are being developed to use enzymes to transform bagasse into advanced biofuel and biogas.[56]. It is an alternative to gasoline, and may become the primary product of sugarcane processing, rather than sugar. Sugar, often in the form of molasses, was shipped from the Caribbean to Europe or New England, where it was used to make rum. It is one of the most efficient photosynthesizers in the plant kingdom. Typically, sugar was used to treat indigestion and stomach ailments, and was also used in wound healing. By the end of this period, about 70 ships were involved in the Madeira sugar trade. Due to its previous huge economic contributions, this sugar mill has played a role in putting Belize on the map in terms of sugar production and exports. The former meaning ultimately derives from Sanskrit शर्करा (śárkarā) as the crop originated in Southeast Asia. At one point in time, sugar was so prized that people would actually lock it up in a sugar safe. [citation needed]. After harvest, the crop produces sugar juice and bagasse, the fibrous dry matter. Refining and distribution operations were based in Antwerp, Belgium. The young, unexpanded flower head of Saccharum edule (duruka) is eaten raw, steamed, or toasted, and prepared in various ways in Southeast Asia, including Fiji and certain island communities of Indonesia. History of Sugar. Such machines can harvest 100 long tons (100 t) each hour; however, harvested cane must be rapidly processed. From there it spread further into western Eurasia and the Mediterranean.[12][13]. In Brazil, gasoline is required to contain at least 22% bioethanol. The spread of both S. officinarum and S. sinense is closely linked to the migrations of the Austronesian peoples. [2], Sugarcane cultivation requires a tropical or subtropical climate, with a minimum of 60 cm (24 in) of annual moisture. Viral diseases affecting sugarcane include sugarcane mosaic virus, maize streak virus, and sugarcane yellow leaf virus. These houses were attached to sugar plantations in the Western colonies. Sugar cane spread from the Polynesian region across the world, becoming a truly global crop with strides in cultivation and processing along the way. Papuans and Austronesians originally primarily used sugarcane as food for domesticated pigs. The plants are two to six metres (six to twenty feet) tall with stout, jointed, fibrous stalks that are rich in sucrose, which accumulates in the stalk internodes. The Dutch similarly kept Suriname, a sugar colony in South America, instead of seeking the return of the New Netherlands (New York). It is grown chiefly in Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, South India (especially Coimbatore) and the Punjab. EIA estimates that with an integrated sugar cane to ethanol technology, the well-to-wheels CO2 emissions can be 90% lower than conventional gasoline.[53]. The earliest evidence of sugar production comes from ancient Sanskrit and Pali texts. Sugar crystals appear naturally white in color during the crystallization process. [63], Sugarcane fields in Bangladesh Sugarcane Research Institute, Sugar cane harvested by women, Hòa Bình Province, Vietnam, Evaporator with baffled pan and foam dipper for making ribbon cane syrup, Caipirinha, a cocktail made from sugarcane-derived Cachaça, Several species of grass cultivated for sugar production, Nutrient Information from Indian Food Composition Database, an effort to keep Australia racially homogeneous, Learn how and when to remove this template message, "Plants & Fungi: Saccharum officinarum (sugar cane)", "Analysis of Three Sugarcane Homo/Homeologous Regions Suggests Independent Polyploidization Events of, "Consumer Preference for Indigenous Vegetables", "Agribusiness Handbook: Sugar beet white sugar", "Genetics, phylogenetics, and comparative genetics of, "Australian South Sea Islanders: A century of race discrimination under Australian law", https://www.uralkali.com/about/potassium/#tab_2782, "Sugar-Cane Harvester Cuts Forty-Tons an Hour", "How to find brand-new diseases of sugarcane!". [59][60] As sugarcane is a seasonal crop, shortly after harvest the supply of bagasse would peak, requiring power generation plants to strategically manage the storage of bagasse. Cuba - Cuba - Sugarcane and the growth of slavery: During the 18th century Cuba depended increasingly on the sugarcane crop and on the expansive, slave-based plantations that produced it. Other important pests are the larvae of some butterfly/moth species, including the turnip moth, the sugarcane borer (Diatraea saccharalis), the African sugarcane borer (Eldana saccharina), the Mexican rice borer (Eoreuma loftini), the African armyworm (Spodoptera exempta), leaf-cutting ants, termites, spittlebugs (especially Mahanarva fimbriolata and Deois flavopicta), and the beetle Migdolus fryanus. An Update on Sugar Processing Practices", "Sugarcane production in 2018, Crops/Regions/World list/Production Quantity (pick lists)", "IEA Energy Technology Essentials: Biofuel Production", "An analysis of Australian sugarcane regions for bagasse paper manufacture", "Cetrel and Novozymes to Make Biogas and Electricity from Bagasse", "Wade Report on Global Bagasse Cogeneration: High Efficiency Bagasse Cogeneration Can Meet Up To 25% of National Dower Demand in Cane Producing Countries", "Sugar Cane Bagasse Energy Cogeneration – Lessons from Mauritius", "Steam economy and cogeneration in cane sugar factories", "The (Agri)Cultural Contradictions Of Obesity", Slavery in the British and French Caribbean, List of top international rankings by country, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Sugarcane&oldid=994035526, Short description is different from Wikidata, Articles with unsourced statements from February 2007, Articles with unsourced statements from June 2017, Articles needing additional references from October 2020, All articles needing additional references, Articles with unsourced statements from November 2009, Articles with unsourced statements from October 2013, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. 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