Its aim is to adequately represent female subjectivity and female desire on the silver screen. Learn more about feminism. List of select feminist film theorists and critics. Analysis generally focused on the meaning within a film's text and the way in which the text constructs a viewing subject. Budd Boetticher summarizes the view: Laura Mulvey expands on this conception to argue that in cinema, women are typically depicted in a passive role that provides visual pleasure through scopophilia,[23]:30 and identification with the on-screen male actor. Related: academic study of pornography - the male gaze - the final girl theory - voyeurism - sadism - scopophilia - women and horror movies. As these areas have grown the framework created in feminist film theory have been adapted to fit into analysing other forms of media.[22]. All the women Bay casts in this franchise are sexualised in some way, and it has no relevance to the story line, or as Mulvey would put it: it is just to please the heterosexual male, rendering it a movie with touches of irrelevant objectification and misogyny. In addition, she believes that this way of watching film is never alternated so that the men are in fact the ones who are being viewed in this manner. Or what about Nicola Peltz in Transformers: Age of Extinction(2014), who is also objectified with minimal clothing and worms-eye camera angles, letting audiences see a lot of skin, indefinitely more than a male actor would reveal in this franchise. Feminist theory is the extension of feminism into theoretical, fictional, or philosophical discourse. Although it often gets reduced to key theoretical—primarily psychoanalytic—analyses of spectatorship from the 1970s and 1980s, it has always been and continues to be a dynamic area with many objects of focus and diverse methodological practices. Feminist theories first emerged as early as 1794 in publications such as A Vindication of the Rights of Woman by Mary Wollstonecraft, "The Changing Woman", " Ain't I a Woman ", "Speech after Arrest for Illegal Voting", and so on. Thus, the film theories set out to analyze the manner in which a great number of women are portrayed in the various films and how it relates to a broader historical context. But from this period onwards, it actually became more concerned with women's agency and desires, accommodating many new areas of thought and experience in the process. Uninvited: Classical Hollywood Cinema and Lesbian Representability by Patricia White. Every female Disney protagonist seems to follow a specific template, continuously made to be extremely thin and put dresses, and with the majority of these characters being white women, it can also make children question the worth and societal view of their race. Considering the way that films are put together, many feminist film critics have pointed to what they argue is the "male gaze" that predominates classical Hollywood filmmaking. For example, model Rosie Huntington-Whiteley plays the role of Sam’s girlfriend in Transformers: Dark of the Moon(2011) and she has a variety of scenes where she walks around with minimal clothing on. [1] Initially in the United States in the early 1970s feminist film theory was generally based on sociological theory and focused on the function of female characters in film narratives or genres. Parent categories: feminism - film theory. Partially this is because people tend to incorporate the things they like into their own identities. Feminist Film heory paradigm in feminist ilm theory, produc- ing pertinent readings of many Hollywood ANNEKE SMELIK genres like melodrama, ilm noir, horror, Radboud University Nijmegen, he Netherlands science iction, and the action movie. [30] A new version of the gaze was offered in the early 1990s by Bracha Ettinger, who proposed the notion of the "matrixial gaze". The 1990s brought the digital revolution. Feminism film theory 1. The relationship of feminist film theory to feminist media and cultural studies is outlined, as is the relationship between developments in feminist film theory and feminist film making. Feminist film theory, however, like most film theories, has a tendency to be ahistorical. The work cited … The Queer German Cinema by Alice Kuzniar. With the advancements in film throughout the years feminist film theory has developed and changed to analyse the current ways of film and also go back to analyse films past. "The Changing Woman" is a Navajo Myth that gave credit to a woman who, in the end, populated the world. All Rights Reserved. Its aim is to adequately represent female subjectivity and female desire on the silver screen. Why does this conglomerate deem it necessary to sexualise their characters? [21], As of recent years many believe feminist film theory to be a fading area of feminism with the massive amount of coverage currently around media studies and theory. Conventionally, the representations of media are counter to the. It is manifest in a variety of disciplines such as feminist geography, feminist history and feminist literary criticism. The Male Gaze suggests that the female viewer must experience the narrative secondarily, by identification with the male. Feminist film theory. April 2016 DOI: 10.1002/9781118663219.wbegss148 CITATIONS 11 READS 12,390 1 author: Some o f the authors of this public ation are also w orking on these r elated projects: Crafting Wearables: on Wearable Technolog y in Fashion Vie w project Book: And The Mirr or Cracked. In reaction to this article, many women filmmakers integrated "alternative forms and experimental techniques" to "encourage audiences to critique the seemingly transparent images on the screen and to question the manipulative techniques of filming and editing". In the 1990s feminist ilm theory moved away from Feminist ilm theory came into being in the a binary understanding of sexual diference early 1970s with the aim of … In part, this can be viewed in light of a more general tendency within film studies to position history and theory as oppositional. Scholars are also taking increasingly global perspectives, responding to postcolonialist criticisms of perceived Anglo- and Eurocentrism in the academy more generally. I don’t think this is a bad thing – I do it too. Feminist Film Theory is alive and well today and has even transcended scholars into pop culture with the Bechdel Test. Rachael Sampson is a screenwriter and critic studying at the…. The second is the perspective of the spectator as they see the female character on screen. Donna Haraway's cyborg feminism (1985) has perhaps been the most successful concept for drawing attention to technology as an integral part of feminism, and her work has been used to include a concern for technology in feminist theory (see e.g., Alaimo and Hekman, 2008). Feminist film theory criticizes classical cinema for its stereotyped representation of women. Mulvey believes that women are in fact “the bearer of meaning and not the maker of meaning,” which suggests that women are not placed in a role where they can take control of a scene, instead they are simply put there to be observed from an objectified point of view. 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