Background:Nutritional anemia is a public health problem among Ghanaian schoolchildren. [52], Besides biotic stresses, cowpea also faces various challenges in different parts of the world such as drought, heat, and cold. [13][25], Cowpeas thrive in poor dry conditions, growing well in soils up to 85% sand. Using an adapted cowpea variety that is more compatible with warm season grasses may help to overcome this issue. It is part of a crop-weed complex, whose origin and dynamics is unknown, which is distributed across the African continent. [50] CPMV is stable and easy to propagate to a high yield, making it useful in vector development and protein expression systems. Review of Politics and Public Policy in Emerging Economies Vol. They are grown mainly for their edible beans. Cowpea grains contain around 22% protein and provide a cheap source of dietary protein for low-income urban and rural populations. [54] Drought at the preflowering stage in cowpea can reduce the yield potential by 360 kg/ha. Traditional methods of protecting stored grain include using the insecticidal properties of Neem extracts, mixing the grain with ash or sand, using vegetable oils, combining ash and oil into a soap solution or treating the cowpea pods with smoke or heat. ... Glutinous Rice Flour and Addition of Cowpea Flour. Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) and moringa (Moringa oleifera) ... the burden of taking care of my kids during the last few months of this study. [21], The size and shape of the leaves vary greatly, making this an important feature for classifying and distinguishing cowpea varieties. It is part of a crop-weed complex, whose origin and dynamics is unknown, which is distributed across the African continent. 1, No 1, June 2019 55 It is against this background that the study intends to analyzed the level of the effects of insurgency on cowpea farmers in the study area. (Hasskarl)", "Southern Peas - Gardening Solutions - University of Florida, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences", "Niebe: A Food of Choice to Combat Hunger", "Genetic Diversity and Population Structure of Cowpea (, "The Potential Role of Neglected and Underutilised Crop Species as Future Crops under Water Scarce Conditions in Sub-Saharan Africa", "Toxicity and repellence of African plants traditionally used for the protection of stored cowpea against Callosobruchus maculatus". [35] More modern methods include storage in airtight containers, using gamma irradiation, or heating or freezing the seeds. "Bionomics, host plant resistance, and management of the legume pod borer, "Genetic Differentiation among Maruca vitrata F. (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) Populations on Cultivated Cowpea and Wild Host Plants: Implications for Insect Resistance Management and Biological Control Strategies", "Pest management practices in cowpea: a review", "Effects of Transgenic Cry1Ac + CpTI Cotton on Non-Target Mealybug Pest, "Screening for Drought Tolerance in Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp) at Seedling Stage under Screen House Condition", "Diversity of Drought Tolerance in the Genus Vigna", "Africa Imports - African Recipes - Red-Red Stew", "The Long and the Short of Yard-Long Beans", Cowpea research at the International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA), Network for Genetic Improvement of Cowpea for All (NGICA), Consensus Document on Compositional Considerations for New Varieties of COWPEA (Vigna unguiculata): Key Food and Feed Nutrients, Anti-nutrients and Other Constituents, OECD Series on the Safety of Novel Foods and Feeds No. 1976). [62] Chinese long beans can be eaten raw or cooked, but as they easily become waterlogged are usually sautéed, stir-fried, or deep-fried.[63]. Cowpea is the most important food grain legume in Sub-Saharan Africa. [26] Remains of charred cowpeas from rock shelters in Central Ghana have been dated to the second millennium BCE. Cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.] The plants are thought to be native to West Africa and are widely cultivated in warm regions around the world. Cowpea is a highly inbred crop. Cowpea, (Vigna unguiculata), annual plant within the pea family (Fabaceae) grown for its edible legumes. It is also utilized as fodder and as quick growing cover-crop. [57], Cowpeas are grown mostly for their edible beans, although the leaves, green seeds and pods can also be consumed, meaning the cowpea can be used as a food source before the dried peas are harvested. This trend has been observed in parts of northern Nigeria where pork and pork products, horse meat, donkey meat and meat of camels and asses are avoided by muslims. [42][43] The weevil generally enters the cowpea pod through holes before harvest and lays eggs on the dry seed. It is a member of the leaf beetle family, Chrysomelidae, and not a true weevil.This common pest of stored legumes has a cosmopolitan distribution, occurring on every continent except Antarctica. [49] The plant is susceptible to mosaic viruses, which cause a green mosaic pattern to appear in the leaves. [66] A popular dish was Hoppin' John, which contained black-eyed peas cooked with rice and seasoned with pork. Background: Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) serves as a major food and income generation crop for millions of people in sub-Saharan Africa and Central America. Genetically modified cowpeas are being developed to express the cry protein from Bacillus thuringiensis, which is toxic to lepidopteran species including the maruca. Warm season mixes may also simply outcompete cowpea, specifically warm season grasses such as millet and sorghum-sudangrass. [56] International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA), Nigeria and Institut de I’Environment ae de Recherches Agricoles are working on cowpea crop wild relatives to tap the genetic diversity and transfer that into cultivars to make them more tolerant to different stresses and adaptive to climate change. Leaves can be picked from 4 weeks after planting. A high level of morphological diversity is found within the species with large variations in the size, shape, and structure of the plant. It improves soil fertility because of its ability to fix nitrogen efficiently (up to 240 kg N per hectare) and can leave a fixed- N deposit in the soil of up to 60 – 70 kg/ha for the succecding crop (Rechie, 1985; Kachare, et al.1988). As the cowpea plant develops, leaves are picked [19][20] The taproot can penetrate to a depth of 2.4 m (7 ft 10 in) after eight weeks. [13] From there they traveled north to the Mediterranean, where they were used by the Greeks and Romans. Hence, this research was initiated with the It is a high protein food and forms a … [62], Most cowpeas are grown on the African continent, particularly in Nigeria and Niger, which account for 66% of world cowpea production. The objectives of this study were to analyse the cowpea transcriptome and develop genic molecular markers for future genetic studies of this genus. Reduction of six pesticide residues (isoprocarb, chlorpyrifos, bifenthrin, beta‐cypermethrin, difenoconazole and azoxystrobin) in cowpea by alkaline electrolysed water (AlEW) solutions with different pH was investigated. Exact figures for cowpea production are hard to come up with as it is not a major export crop. COMPARATIVE STUDY OF THE GROWTH PERFORMANCE OF FOUR COMMERCIAL FISH FEEDS IN THE PRODUCTION OF AFRICAN CATFISH (CLARIAS GARIEPINUS). A review of the genetics, genomics and breeding of cowpea … Cowpea seeds provide a rich source of proteins and calories, as well as minerals and vitamins. Over time, cowpeas became more universally accepted and now Hoppin' John is seen as a traditional Southern dish ritually served on New Year's Day. 1.1 Background of the study. is one of the most important legumes in tropical and semi-arid regions.However, there is relatively little genomic information available for genetic research on and breeding of cowpea. Study subjects will receive 3 times per week, as part of the school feeding programme 66g of raw fortified cowpea (with added 10mg Fe as NaFeEDTA)in form of Toubani (a cowpea based snack). Cowpea, Vigna unguiculata (L.), is an important grain legume grown in the tropics where it constitutes a valuable source of protein in the diets of millions of people. Background: Plant-growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) and arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi have the ability to enhance the growth, fitness, and quality of various agricultural crops, including cowpea. Legumes are sometimes refserred to as “poor man’s meat” or the “rich man’s vegetable” ( Walker, 1981). Despite its importance, researchers have fewer ways to study cowpea plants, which means that researchers had to turn to the tobacco plant to test how these receptors actually work. The effect of anti-nutritional factors (tannin, phytic acid , and tryps in inhibitors) on cowpea protein, The proximate and mineral composition of cowpea grains. [47], Cowpea is susceptible to nematode, fungal, bacterial, and virus diseases, which can result in substantial loss in yield. The pulse is indigenous to Africa (Okigbo, 1986), though it is now grown in other continents, such as Central America (Bressani et al. [11] All cultivated cowpeas are found within the universally accepted V. unguiculata subspecies unguiculata classification, which is then commonly divided into four cultivar groups: unguiculata, biflora, sesquipedalis, and textilis. [18] Cowpeas can either be short and bushy (as short as 20 cm or 8 in) or act like a vine by climbing supports or trailing along the ground (to a height of 2 m or 6 ft 7 in). Productivity of cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp] in sub-Sahara Africa is curtailed by a lack of farmer-preferred and improved cultivars and modern production technologies. 1994). Increase in vegetable protein, vitamin and soluble carbohydrates supply from cowpea in malnourished areas presents a less difficult, less expensive and more energy efficient solution. Materials and Methods The whole plant is used as … It is a subsistence crop, often intercropped with sorghum, maize and pearl millet. [70], The cowpea has often been referred to as "poor man's meat" due to the high levels of protein found in the seeds and leaves. [59] Cowpeas can be prepared in stews, soups, purees, casseroles and curries. Like other grain legumes, cowpeas are a good source of energy, proteins (amino acids), vitamins, minerals and deitary fiber. Close, Alisa Huffaker, and Eric A. Schmelz: This page was last edited on 18 January 2021, at 16:03. unguiculata var. The grain provides valuable protein and the leaves are used as a nutritious vegetable. Background Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) is the most important grain legume and fodder crop in the dry savannas of tropical Africa. A second domestication event probably occurred in Asia, before they spread into Europe and the Americas. Over 60% of cowpea growing area is in west and central Africa (WCA), but a The objectives of the study were to [21] Flower colour varies through different shades of purple, pink, yellow, and white and blue. [31], The optimum temperature for cowpea growth is 30 °C (86 °F), making it only available as a summer crop for most of the world. [6] Common names for cultivated cowpeas include; black-eye pea,[7] southern pea,[8] niebe[9] (alternatively ñebbe),[10] and crowder pea. The beans are also known by other names such as blackeye beans, southern peas, colossus peas and crowther peas. cowpea crop species on the farmers’ land, distribution status, finding the suitable solution for the major production areas in the study area, what are the constraints of cowpea productions in the study area and so on? Cowpeas can be erect, semierect (trailing), or climbing. They can have a smooth or rough coat and be speckled, mottled, or blotchy. [33] The crop is mostly intercropped with pearl millet, and plants are selected that provide both food and fodder value instead of the more specialised varieties. Jav. However, field trials confirming the benefits of microbes in large-scale applications using economically viable and efficient inoculation methods are still scarce. Uses of cowpea … [16] Black-eyed pea, a common name used for the unguiculata cultivar group, describes the presence of a distinctive black spot at the hilum of the seed. [21], Compared to most other important crops, little is known about the domestication, dispersal, and cultivation history of the cowpea. Millions of african farmers grow cowpea, some two hundred million africans consume PubMed Central. (IPM CRSP, 2000). [64] They also use the cowpea paste as a supplement in infant formula when weaning babies off milk. This study examined outcrossing rates and genetic structures in 35 wild cowpea (Vigna unguiculata ssp. Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L.) is an important grain and forage legume grown throughout sub-Saharan Africa primarily by subsistence farmers on poor, drought prone soils.Genetic improvement of the crop is being actively pursued and numerous functional genomics studies are underway aimed at characterizing gene controlling key agronomic characteristics for disease and pest … Of “ the background study of cowpea Stronghold International Ministries ” family friends... General Background and History 5 2.1.3,... 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